Hackley and Hume Papers
Scope and Contents
The Hackley and Hume papers contain the business records of several inter-related Michigan-based business firms and some of the private papers of the families of Charles Henry Hackley and Thomas Hume. The papers span the years 1859-1955. The papers document lumbering and lumber investments in Michigan and other states. The papers also document Charles Henry Hackley and Thomas Hume, both prominent timbermen and philanthropists, as well as other family members. Hackley and Hume were active in their hometown of Muskegon, Michigan, which is documented in the collection as well.
Types of Records in the Collection:
Corporate and personal correspondence are included in the papers of Hackley and Hume. The letterpress books, 1870-1946, provide a major portion of the corporate correspondence for all of the companies controlled by Hackley and Hume. Because the letters were reproduced using the mechanically hand-driven letterpress of the nineteenth century, the print in the early books varies from good to almost illegible. For a complete list of the letterpress books by company, see the inventory below. After the death of Thomas Hume in 1920, the individual descriptions of the various companies he controlled were written for the use of the Internal Revenue Service. These corporate descriptions can be found in the letterpress books of Hackley and Hume and Hume-Hefferan, Volumes 47, 48, and 49.
Additional correspondence files (other than the letterpress books) for the period 1916-1955 were also maintained by the Humes. Much of this correspondence is corporate, but it also reflects the wide-ranging personal interests of the Hume family in these years. This correspondence should also be consulted when investigating particular business aspects of the collection. It is arranged alphabetically and by year.
Another category of correspondence is that contained in the boxes of each separate company. The inventory gives a detailed listing of the correspondence accompanying the contracts and corporate papers of each company. All forms of correspondence form an integral part of the corporate papers of many of the companies in this collection. Each form of correspondence, where applicable, must be consulted for a complete picture of a specific company.
Personal correspondence of the Hackley and Hume families is contained in the series Hackley and Hume Personal Family Papers. There is also some interesting personal commentary in the corporate correspondence, especially in the letters between George and Thomas Hackley Hume and their father Thomas Hume.
The financial records of the various companies in this collection (journals, ledgers, cash books, blotters, etc.) are extensive. They document the lumber companies and also the many Muskegon-based firms of the post-lumbering area. Because business was conducted by many firms under one roof throughout the entire period of this collection, the financial records of several firms are often times integrated into one volume. Therefore, even though a cashbook has embossed on its binding "Hackley and McGordon," it may also include the records of other companies. The cash disbursements of other firms of the Hackley and Hume interests may be involved and these will be identified inside the volume.
Seven boxes of receipts are contained in this collection. These are almost exclusively personal in nature and do not include the tax receipts of the corporations in the Hackley and Hume Papers. All corporate tax receipts are included with the papers of each company.
The bulk of the "loose" corporate papers are organized under their appropriate corporate categories. Thus, to thoroughly study any particular company, one must consult these papers as well as the correspondence and the financial records in the bound volumes. The finding aid gives a complete description for every company of the collection's holdings for corporate, financial and correspondence materials.
The photographs include one image of Hackley and Hume Mill on Muskegon lake, as well as a few portraits of Charles Henry Hackley and Thomas Hume. Other photographs include the operations in the California Redwood country in the early twentieth century. Topics of the California photos include logging railroad of the Sanger Lumber Company, Boole tree, flume of the Sanger Lumber Company, Hume Lake in California, mill at Sanger, California, trees at Hume Lake, logging scenes of Hume, California, mill at Hume, California, landscape scenes of the Sierra Nevada mountains, people at Hume California, Mountain Home Tract at Hume California. Also included is photo album of the construction of the dam at Hume Lake in 1909 and a scrapbook of redwood trees and lumbering from 1949.
There are 12 films in this collection from the period 1930-1941. They are amateur films of trips to Europe, locations in the United States and Panama.
Series in the Collection:
J.H. Hackley & Co., 1859-1866
Correspondence, financial records, tax receipts, land patents and title papers comprise the bulk of this firm's papers. Included are the log receipts from the Muskegon Booming Co., of which Joseph Hackley was a principal founder.
• Correspondence, 1870-1872 • Financial Records, 1859-1879 • Land Patents, circa 1860s • Deeds, circa 1850s • Abstracts of Title • Bank Drafts, 1865-1868 • Log Receipts, 1864-1865 • Log Marks, 1864-1919
Hackley & Sons, 1866-1877
Correspondence, financial reports, bank drafts and log receipts comprise the corporate papers of Hackley & Sons. As the successor to J.H. Hackley & Co., Hackley & Sons continued the work of the older firm with essentially the same personnel and property holdings.
• Correspondence, 1870-1879 • Financial Records, 1866-1878 • Bank Drafts, 1865-1878 • Log Receipts, 1867-1877
Hackley & McGordon, 1866-1880
Correspondence, financial records, taxes, bank drafts, log receipts, law suits and land contracts are included in the corporate records of the Hackley & McGordon timber operation. In addition, a land contract involving W.S. Gerrish, a Michigan timberman, and the Flint-Pere Marquette Railroad is included.
• Correspondence, 1870-1882 • Financial Records, 1866-1883 • Deeds, circa 1870s-1880s • Bank Drafts, 1869-1881 • Contracts
C.H. Hackley & Co., 1876-1900
Correspondence, financial records, tax receipts, title papers, bank drafts, log receipts and contracts. Included in these papers are materials related to the purchase of the Lake George and Muskegon River Railroad, which was established by W.S. Gerrish as the world's first logging railroad in the decade after the United States Civil War.
• Correspondence, 1873-1899 • Financial Records, 1869-1901 • Title Papers, circa 1870s-1880s • Bank Drafts, 1877-1887 • Log Receipts, 1877-1885 • Contracts, 1879-1882
Hackley & Hume, 1881-1905
The firm of Hackley & Hume was the most significant of the companies contained in this collection. Under the direction of Charles Hackley and his longtime associate and partner, Thomas Hume, business was expanded into several states besides Michigan as well as British Columbia, Canada. The general contents of these papers are listed by state. The volumes in this series contain correspondence, financial records and other pertinent material for all Hackley and Hume holdings, not just one particular state.
Michigan Lands General Contents • Correspondence, 1879-1925 • Financial Records, 1881-1955 • Deeds & Title Papers • Bank Drafts, 1881-1920s • Log Receipts, 1881-1894 • Contracts, 1881-1925 • Law Suits • Miscellaneous
Mississippi Lands General Contents • Correspondence, 1899-1912 • Financial Records, 1889-1912 • Contracts
Minnesota Lands General Contents • Correspondence, 1884-1955 • Financial Records, 1884-1919 • Contracts • Rent Collection Reports, 1903-1914 • Land Plats & Maps
British Columbia Lands General Contents • Correspondence, 1898-1952 • Financial Records, 1902-1952 • Contracts • Land Plats & Maps
Hackley & Hume Co. Ltd.
• Articles of Association, By-Laws, Dissolution • Capital Stock Papers
Hume, Hefferan & Co., 1907-1942
As the holding company for the Carolina Timber Co. and the Hume-Bennett/Sanger Lumber Co., Hume, Hefferan & Co. oversaw the management of both of these subsidiaries. Included in the papers of Hume, Hefferan & Co. are correspondence, financial records, and tax matters that relate to the subsidiary firms.
• Correspondence, 1907-1942 • Financial Records, 1907-1942 • Law Suits • Carolina Timber Co. • Hume-Bennett Lumber Co./Sanger Lumber Co.
Carolina Timber Co., 1908-1939
As the principle subsidiary of Hume, Hefferan & Co., the Carolina Timber Co. held lands in North Carolina and in California. However, the Carolina Timber Co. carried on no business operations in North Carolina other than to pay taxes and transfer property. In 1927, for reasons of legal protection, the California lands controlled by Hume, Hefferan & Co. were put under the control of the Carolina Timber Co.
• Correspondence, 1907-1947 • Financial Records, 1907-1945 • Holding Company Papers, 1921-1941 • North Carolina Lands
California Lands, 1907-1927
The California lands were the largest operation undertaken by Hume, Hefferan & Co. They were originally organized under the corporate title of Hume-Bennett Lumber Co., later the name was changed to the Sanger Lumber Co. in 1917.
Thomas Hume & Co., 1907-1954
Correspondence, financial records, law suits, directors meetings and stocks & bonds books make up the primary holdings of the papers of Thomas Hume & Co. Hume and his sons, George A. & Thomas H. Hume, managed Thomas Hume & Co. as an investment business. The principle firms in which they held controlling or large interests are classified under the heading Thomas Hume & Co. Other firms where funds were invested can be found in the volumes of Thomas Hume & Co.
• Articles of Agreement, 1911 • Trail Balances, 1922-1925 • Audits • Miscellaneous
Vandergrift Box Co.
• Articles of Association & Board Meetings • Trial Balance, 1910-1923 • Labelle Box Co. & Elkins Box Co., Incomplete Statements
Sargent Mfg. Co.
• Miscellaneous Material, 1890-1925
Gray Jockey Mining Co.
• Miscellaneous Material, 1891-1893
Twelve Mile Strip Lands-North Carolina
• Deeds and Conveyances • Correspondence • Contracts • Miscellaneous
Lacey-Buek Iron Company
• Reports & Correspondence, 1903-1909 • Reorganization and Absorption
Receipts, 1867-1886, 1896-1943
The receipts in these boxes cover every aspect of the Hackley and Hume Papers (other than taxes) and include personal as well as business related matters. All receipts are arranged alphabetically by years.
Newspaper Clippings & Miscellaneous
Newspaper clippings that relate to the various bequests, activities and organizations found in the Hackley & Hume Papers is the main category in this section. Jean Hume Browning's correspondence on the history of the Hackley and Hume Companies is also contained.
• Hackley Bequest Clippings • Hackley House Clippings • Muskegon General History • Jean Hume Browning Correspondence • Miscellaneous Materials
The Life of Charles Henry Hackley (Muskegon: Dana Printing Co., 1948)
Box 26, Folder 1, vol. 254 Johnson, Victor E., Michigan Log Marks (East Lansing: Agricultural Experiment Station, 1941).
Box 26, Folder 2, Read, Frederick, Beyond the Windswept Dunes: The Story of Maritime Muskegon (Wayne State University Press, 2003)
- 1859 - 1955
- Hackley, Charles Henry (Person)
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is open for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to publish material from this collection must be obtained from University Archives & Historical Collections, Michigan State University.
In 1859, Joseph Hackley established the lumber firm of J. H. Hackley & Co. with his sons Edwin, Porter, and Charles as partners. This company worked lands it had acquired through federal land patents and private purchases, lands accessible by way of the Muskegon River and its tributaries (in Michigan). The corporate papers of C. H. Hackley & Co. consist almost exclusively of the financial records held in eleven bound volumes. A day-by-day account of the firm's business activities during the Civil War period seems to indicate that manpower was available for logging operations despite the demand of the war. Because extant correspondence in the Hackley and Hume Papers begins only in 1870 with the first letter press books, detailed investigation of the C. H. Hackley & Co. is limited to the ledger entries.
In 1864, Hackley and other prominent Muskegon lumbermen organized the Muskegon Booming Co., which served as the principal depot for the timber industry in western Michigan until the end of the 19th Century. C. H. Hackley & Co. was dissolved in 1866 and its assets were transferred to the newly created firm of Hackley & Sons, which was composed of essentially the same owners as J. H. Hackley & Co. and operated out of the same mill office in Muskegon, Michigan. Lands were added to the holdings of this firm and operations continued in the post-war decade. In 1866, Charles Henry Hackley and James McGordon formed the lumber firm of Hackley & McGordon, with Hackley contributing three-quarters of the capital and McGordon the remainder. Hackley & McGordon was to become one of the most important timber operations in West Michigan. Both C. H. Hackley and James McGordon made their fortunes with this new firm and expanded their holdings further along the Muskegon River system. The two firms of Hackley & Sons and Hackley & McGordon were headquartered in the same Muskegon offices, but each maintained separate corporate existence. The records for Hackley & Sons are more abundant than are those of its immediate predecessor. Letterpress books from 1870 provide a more complete history of the companies than do the financial records alone in the case of J. H. Hackley & Co. Business expanded rapidly for both firms with Hackley & McGordon becoming the more successful firm in the 1870s. Eventually, Hackley & Sons was dissolved and its records were taken over by the new firm of C. H. Hackley & Co. in 1877. This new arrangement was probably instigated by the death of Joseph Hackley and the need to reorganize the capital of the Hackley brothers. Joseph Hackley's estate settlement papers are contained in the section on estates in the Hackley and Hume papers.
Once again, the new firm of C. H. Hackley & Co. did business alongside the older business of Hackley & McGordon. C. H. Hackley & Co. was composed of Thomas Hume and Porter Hackley, each with a one-quarter interest, and C. H. Hackley with a one-half interest. More than any of the previously mentioned lumber businesses, C. H. Hackley & Co. penetrated further into Michigan's seemingly endless white pine forests. They undertook extensive logging drives into the Houghton Lake area and had several logging camps to house operations. Hackley was associated with the well-known timber investor, Winfield S. Gerrish, in many deals. In the mid-1870s, Gerrish had developed what was the world's first technically successful logging railroad. This important innovation was known as the Lake George and Muskegon River Railroad and allowed timbering to reach deeper into the woodlands. After Gerrish's untimely death, C. H. Hackley & Co. bought the railroad in 1882 from John Woods, who then had control of the railroad. The contract and the inventory of the entire railroad and the logging camp at its terminus are preserved in the section on C. H. Hackley & Co.
After James McGordon's death on December 27, 1880, the firm of Hackley was dissolved and the firm of Hackley & Hume organized on June 4, 1881. Hackley retained three-quarters of the assets and Hume purchased the remaining one-quarter for a nominal sum. Several years after James McGordon's death, an heir to his estate challenged the validity of the Hume purchase but was denied relief from the courts.
The Hackley & Hume Company, which operated actively from 1881 until Hackley's death in 1905, was perhaps the most important of the nineteenth century lumber firms in the papers. Along with the extensive holdings of Hackley & McGordon, Hackley & Hume also acquired the assets of C. H. Hackley & Co. when that firm was dissolved in the 1890s.
In 1886 Hackley & Hume expanded its interests into several other states and British Columbia, Canada. In association with James D. Lacey, a prominent Grand Rapids, Michigan timber broker, lands were purchased throughout the southern portion of the United States. Hackley & Hume originally planned to log these lands in the yellow pine and cypress belts, but they proved much more lucrative as timber investments. Many of the holdings were sold before the turn of the century for enormous profits. In 1903, Hackley & Hume Co., Ltd. was formed out of the remaining Louisiana lands that Hackley & Hume had held there since the 1880s. The William Joyce Company of Chicago also had lands in Louisiana and often worked with Hackley and Hume.
Hackley and Hume had significant land holdings in the South, especially in the Carolinas. They owned land in the Great Santee Swamp where these lands and the South Carolina lands were sold as required by the terms of the Hackley will in the 1930s. Although sold to private investors, the Santee Swamp region attracted attention from the federal government during the Great Depression. Hydroelectric projects were proposed for this region as part of the New Deal's rural electrification endeavors. Thomas Hume's sons, who took over the family business after the elder Hume's death in 1920, were involved in this debate over the future of their swamp lands.
The range of Hackley & Hume interests was not confined to the South. Large profits made in land investments were put back into new ventures. In Minnesota, Hackley and Hume owned a large interest in the Itasca Lumber Company which was controlled by the William Joyce Company. H. C. Akeley of Grand Haven, Michigan, who was associated with Hackley & Hume in other enterprises, also had an interest in the Itasca Lumber Company, as well as his own company in Minnesota. Itasca was said to have the world's most productive mills, cutting million of board feet per year. The Minneapolis & Rainy River Railroad was part of the Minnesota-Itasca project as well. When the Minnesota lands were finally cut over, Hackley & Hume and partners sold these rich lands to immigrants many of them Scandinavians, who turned them to agricultural production.
Other Hackley & Hume projects involved investments in Muskegon manufacturing plants. The depression of the 1890s undermined many newly established firms. In some cases, Hackley & Hume increased their investments and took over controlling interest. The Chase Brothers Piano Company became the Chase-Hackley Piano Company. Thomas Hume served as president of the Alaska Refrigerator Company for some years until it was absorbed by the Norge Corporation. The Muskegon National Bank, chartered in 1870, was rechartered and renamed the Hackley National Bank in 1890. As of 1976 it was called the Hackley Union National Bank. Both Charles Hackley and Thomas Hume served as presidents of the bank. Hackley & Hume were involved in many aspects of Muskegon life from the country club to relief services for the poor.
Around 1890 Muskegon's first Board of Trade was organized. C. H. Hackley and Thomas Hume were among its founders and major supporters. As Michigan's timber resources were depleted, the economic health of the "Lumber Queen" declined. Many important lumbermen closed their mills and left the city, some for the southern forests, but most for the western forests. The Board of Trade, later renamed the Chamber of Commerce, sought to revive business and job opportunities by devising a system in which industry would be attracted to Muskegon through a bonus fund. Thomas Hume for many years served as one of the trustees of the Chamber Bonus Fund. Altogether, forty-three industries were brought to Muskegon under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce. A record of the Chamber's activities in this period (1893-1927) is preserved in the Hackley and Hume papers.
Charles Henry Hackley died early in 1905. Under the terms of Hackley's will, the firm of Hackley & Hume was to discontinue its business within ten years and make no new major investments in that period. As three-quarters owner of the assets of the company, Hackley had decided that his estate of nearly ten million dollars (the largest ever probated in Michigan up to its time) be administered by the Michigan Trust Company of Grand Rapids, and his partner, Thomas Hume. The majority of the capital assets of Hackley & Hume were hence distributed among relatives of Hackley, charitable bequests, and long-term bond investments. The remainder of the firm's capital was controlled by Thomas Hume, who was forced to find a new outlet for his own capital due to the restrictions of Hackley will.
In 1907, Thomas Hume incorporated two firms completely independent of association with the Hackley financial interests. The first of these new business projects was Thomas Hume & Co., which was formed as an investment holding company for the Hume interests. Thomas Hume & Co. invested in stock and bond issues as well as holding large and direct controlling interest in many industries in Muskegon and throughout the nation. The Humes owned large blocks of shares in Ohio coal lands in the No. 8 Coal Co., of which Thomas Hume served as president. They were also involved in the Vipont Mining Co., a silver mining venture. In Muskegon Thomas Hume & Co. held an important interest in the Sargent Manufacturing Co., and owned the Amazon Hosiery Co.
Thomas Hume also founded Hume, Hefferan & Co. in 1907 in conjunction with his son George A. Hume and George Hefferan, a Grand Rapids businessman. Thomas Hume owned 80 percent of the company, while George A. Hume and George Hefferan owned 10 percent each. Hume, Hefferan & Co. was designed as a land holding company and included in its holdings the Hume-Bennett Lumber Co., Mt. Home Tract and the Carolina Timber Co., and these in turn held land in California and North and South Carolina. The lands held in the Carolinas were never cut and were eventually sold to several buyers, including the Singer Manufacturing Co. of New York.
In California, an enterprise was established in the redwood forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Thomas Hume with Ira Bennett as a partner bought the Sanger Lumber Co. which held more than 20,000 acres of timberland in Fresno County and 320 acres in adjoining Tulare County. The new owners immediately changed the name of the company to the Hume-Bennett Lumber Co. When Thomas Hume established Hume, Hefferan & Co. in 1907 he placed his stock in Hume-Bennett under the control of Hume, Hefferan & Co. The Hume-Bennett Lumber Co. carried on an extensive logging operation and was an important factor in the economy of the area. Years later, Bennett sold his interest and the name of the company was changed to the Sanger Lumber Co. Thomas Hume poured large sums of money into this California venture in an effort to maintain its financial solvency. His son, George A. Hume, managed the company through most of its existence. Operations continued until 1917 when a fire at the mill in Hume, California and the wartime labor shortage halted work. (See vol. 254 They Felled the Redwoods, by Hank Johnston).
As early as 1911 the Humes had attempted to divest themselves of their western properties, and a renewed effort was made in the late 1920s, but the ensuing depression created difficulties. After many unsuccessful attempts to dispose of these lands, a sale was made to the federal government in 1935. This sale incorporated the Sanger Lumber Co. lands into the Sequoia National Forest. The remaining California holdings were sold in 1945 to the state of California after an intense effort by environmentalists to save the largest tract of Sierra Redwoods still in private hands. By the time of the sale to the State of California, Hume, Hefferan & Co. had dissolved (1942) and its assets transferred to Thomas Hume & Co.
The California operation was unique in many respects. The flume that the Sanger Lumber Co. operated was nearly sixty miles long, reputedly the world's longest. The photographs in the Hackley & Hume Photograph Collection show the extent of many sections of the flume as it winds its way through some of the steepest parts of the Sierra Nevadas. Another aspect of the California holdings is the dam that was constructed at Hume Lake in the early part of the 20th century. According to sources in these papers, the Hume Lake dam, apparently the first poured concrete dam in the world, was unique because of its hollow concrete and arched design. John Eastwood, the dam's engineer, designed the structure on a cost-efficient basis. Eastwood argued that if designed correctly, a hollow concrete dam would be much less costly and stronger than earlier designs (See vol. 254 They Felled the Redwoods, by Hank Johnston). The photograph files also contain many prints of the dam under construction and after completion.
After the sale of the lands in California the business of Thomas Hume & Co. was gradually concluded. In 1954 its books were closed and the firm was dissolved. In the early 1950s the last of the Hackley & Hume Co. lands in British Columbia were sold.
George Hume and The Michigan Trust Company were co-executors responsible for the estates of both his father Thomas Hume, and his friend George Hefferan. Because the distributions of the estates were at cross purposes, a friendly lawsuit was instituted so that the court could direct George A. Hume's duties as executor of George Hefferan's estate.
83 Cubic Feet (57 Boxes, 264 Volumes, 12 Films)
Language of Materials
Gift of Mrs. Jean Hume Browning, Spring Lake, Michigan.
Literary Right: The literary rights of Thomas Hume, as passed on to his heir, Jean Hume Browning, have been dedicated to the public. However, the literary rights of the dozens of individuals whose materials are in these papers may continue to reside with the original authors or their heirs. The researcher is reminded of his responsibilities under the copyright laws for papers whose rights have not been dedicated to the public.
Property Rights: Michigan State University.
A good starting point for using the collection is Jean Hume Browning's multi-volume annotated guide to the letterpress books (see later in this finding aid). After many years of work, Mrs. Browning compiled an impressive synopsis of the contents of the bound correspondence of the companies and personalities in this collection. The Browning annotated guide serves as the simplest and most efficient introduction to the entire collection. The guide is arranged by various subject headings including major events, people, corporate developments, and structures as extracted from the dozens of letterpress books. The researcher is urged to first consult the series lists for a brief description of the structure of the collection and then to examine the Browning annotated guide.
- Amateur films
- California -- Description and travel
- Clippings (Books, newspapers, etc.)
- Commercial correspondence
- Depressions -- 1929 -- United States
- England -- Description and travel
- Europe -- Description and travel
- Greater Muskegon Chamber of Commerce
- Hackley, Charles Henry
- Land grants
- Ledgers (account books)
- Legal documents
- Legal instruments
- Letters (correspondence)
- Log transportation
- Logging -- Arkansas
- Logging -- Arkansas -- History
- Logging -- British Columbia
- Logging -- British Columbia -- History
- Logging -- California
- Logging -- California -- History
- Logging -- Florida
- Logging -- Florida -- History
- Logging -- Louisiana
- Logging -- Louisiana -- History
- Logging -- Michigan
- Logging -- Michigan -- History
- Logging -- Minnesota
- Logging -- Minnesota -- History
- Logging -- Mississippi
- Logging -- Mississippi -- History
- Logging -- Wisconsin
- Logging -- Wisconsin -- History
- Logging railroads
- London (England) -- Description and travel
- Lumber -- Transportation
- Lumber camps
- Lumber trade
- Lumbering -- Arkansas
- Lumbering -- Arkansas -- History
- Lumbering -- British Columbia
- Lumbering -- British Columbia -- History
- Lumbering -- California
- Lumbering -- California -- History
- Lumbering -- Florida
- Lumbering -- Florida -- History
- Lumbering -- Louisiana
- Lumbering -- Louisiana -- History
- Lumbering -- Michigan
- Lumbering -- Michigan -- History
- Lumbering -- Minnesota
- Lumbering -- Minnesota -- History
- Lumbering -- Mississippi
- Lumbering -- Mississippi -- History
- Lumbering -- Wisconsin
- Lumbering -- Wisconsin -- History
- Muskegon (Mich.)
- National parks and reserves -- United States
- New Deal, 1933-1939
- New Orleans (La.) -- Description and travel
- Panama -- Description and travel
- Santee River Valley (S.C.)
- Tax returns
- Timber -- North Carolina
- Timber -- South Carolina
- White pine industry
- Charles H. Hackley and Thomas Hume Papers
- 3 Ready For Cataloging
- D. Peters
- July 1976
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Language of description note
- Finding aid written in English.